Klungkung Regency


 

Kertagosa

Capital : Klungkung
Location : South Eastern Bali
Important Phone Numbers :
Direct Inquiries : 0366 21108
Klungkung Tourist Office Address : Jl.Surapati 3 – Semarapura.
Phone : 0365 – 21448

 

General Information

The Regency of Klungkung Region is about 315 km² in administratively divided into 4 sub district such as: Banjarankan Sub-district , klungkung Sub-district , Dawan Sub-district and Nusa Penida Sub-district .Klungkung is of the smallest in Bali Province , but it has potential tourism aspect to develop. Based on the decree of the Governor of Bali Province on 1993 number 528, Nusa Penida in one of with also fixed as a tourist resort in Bali . And then base of the Regency of Klungkung Government on 1996 decree number 284 there are 18 tourist object in the regency inclusive Nusa Penida.

The following are slight description of 18 tourist object as mentioned above and some tourist objects that to interest Klungkung was once the centre of Bali ‘s most important kingdom and a great artistic and cultural focal point. Successors to the Majapahit conquerors of Bali establish themselves at Gelgel in around 1400, and the Gelgel dynasty strengthened with the growing Majapahit presence on Bali . This peak from 1550, when Waturenggong became Dewa Agung (King), and the priest Nirartha arrived to consolidate Bali ‘s religious order. The next 50 years saw a flowering culture on Bali , in a period which became known as the “Golden Age”.

During the 17 th century the successors of the Gelgel line establish separate kingdoms and the dominance of the Gelgel of the Gelgel court was lost. The court moved to Klungkung in 1710, and though it was always respected as the original Balinese royal house, it never regained a pre-eminent position. The first Dutch arrivals on Bali were entertained by the Gelgel court in 1597. But Dutch rule was imposed first on north, east and west Bali . In 1849 the rulers of Klungkung Gianyar defeated a Dutch invasion force at Kusamba. Before the Dutch could launch a counter attack, a force from Tabanan had arrived and the trader Mads Lange was able to broker a peace settlement.

The area is divided into three parts, the museum on the West, Taman Gili (Floating Hall) on the South, and Kertha Gosa (Old Court-Hall) on the North. There are wayang (consist of Hindu’s figures and stories) pictures at the ceiling of the Old Court-Hall which tell about the life after the death. There is also a big exit called Pamedalan Agung, it is said when a Dutch Soldier climbed and was at the top of Pamedalan Agung he saw a different place below not the ordinary one.

Overview

East Bali comprises the regencies Klungkung and Karangasem.Kentel Gumi temple, an ancient temple built by Empu Kuturan around the 11 th century, stands on the roadside near Klungkng, 37 kilometers from Denpasar. Old historical relics are found at Meru, Lingga and a few other places in the area. Kerta Gosa Hall/ Gili Park are located aside the main rood in Klungkung town, 40 kilometers from Denpasar. It is a legacy of the 18 th century Klungkung kingdom, which was ruled by King Kresna Kepakisan. Kerta Gosa is a pavilion inside the royal palace grounds. The royal residence itself, Puri Semara Pura, was destroyed during the war against the Dutch at the beginning of this century.

There is a “Floating Pavilion” called Balai Kambang located in the middle of a lotus as Taman Gili. The celling of the Kerta Gosa is covered with very artistic paintings. The original paintings were covered up and replaced, first in 1930 and later again in 1960. The style in which the paintings are done is regarded as the original Balinese painting style, virtually untouched by foreign influences. The Panti Timbrah temple is located 1.5 kilometers from Klungkung. Built by Jero Bendesa at Paksa village, it is a well-known Subak temple. Temple festival are held on Klion Kuningan Mondays.

The Bono or Taman Sari Temple is 2,5 kilometers from Klungkung. Sang Bono is a unique dance that is performed nowhere else. Gelgel, three kilometers from Klungkung, near the south coast, was the capital of the old kingdom before it was waived to Klungkung. Nowadays, the village is known for its gold and silver crafts. Dasar Gelgel temple is found here. It was built by Empu Kuturan in 1804, during the region of King Çri Wira Dalem Kesori. It is one of the most important temple n Bali . The temple grounds are wide and well kept. The original building was damage, but it has since been rebuilt.

Kamasan village lies a little to the south of Klungkung. The village earned its name from the many gold craftsmen who live and work here but is now better known as a village of painters of the old wayang (puppet) style. Leather puppet are also made here. The Klotok temple lies on Klotok Beach , about one kilometer from Kamasan or four kilometer to the south of Klungkung. Although located on the coast the temple is built on high land, so the views from there across the land and the sea are wide and impressive. The temple was built by Empu Kuturan 1084. Lepang Beach , 4,5 kilometers from Klungkung, border as calm sea.

Coconut trees grow in rows along the shore. Jungutbatu Beach is found on Nusa Lembongan Island , near Nusa Penida. The coral reef off this beach are wonderful and teeming with life.

Nusa Penida

Nusa Penida is the group of island off Bali ‘s southeast coast, hat consists three islands. Nusa Lembongan, Nusa Ceningan and Nusa Penida itself. They are barren coral islands but have an allure that is all their own. Lawah Cave is found at the side of the road leading to the other side of the island. Pncak Sari temple is found on the top of the cave. The cave is three meters high and is occupied by bats. It is said to have bee a secret meeting place where the rulers of Bali met to discuss plans for revolt against the Dutch. Temple festival are held during certain Tuesday. Lembongan Island has attractive scenery.

It can be reached in two hours by motorboat from Sanur. Nusa Lembongan is 8.6 square kilometers large its beaches have bone-white sand. The water is clean, the coral and fishes beautiful. Excellent for skin-diving and other water sports. Nusa Penida covers a surface of 1,911 square kilometers. This island is much visited by tourists during the season when the valuable swallow’s nests are harvested. Gathering the nests is an important source of livelihood.

History

Klungkung was once the centre of Bali ‘s most important kingdom and a great artistic and cultural focal point. Successors to the Majapahit conquerors of Bali establish themselves at Gelgel in around 1400, and the Gelgel dynasty strengthened with the growing Majapahit presence on Bali . This peak from 1550, when Waturenggong became Dewa Agung (King), and the priest Nirartha arrived to consolidate Bali ‘s religious order. The next 50 years saw a flowering culture on Bali , in a period which became known as the “Golden Age”. During the 17 th century the successors of the Gelgel line establish separate kingdoms and the dominance of the Gelgel of the Gelgel court was lost.

The court moved to Klungkung in 1710, and though it was always respected as the original Balinese royal house, it never regained a pre-eminent position. The first Dutch arrivals on Bali were entertained by the Gelgel court in 1597. But Dutch rule was imposed first on north, east and west Bali . In 1849 the rulers of Klungkung Gianyar defeated a Dutch invasion force at Kusamba. Before the Dutch could launch a counter attack, a force from Tabanan had arrived and the trader Mads Lange was able to broker a peace settlement. The town of Klungkung is the capital of Klungkung regency, which includes the islands surrounding Nusa Lembongan.

Most tourists don’t visit Klungkung, but it has an important history. During the Hindu, Majapahit invasion of Bali in 1343 , the new rulers set up a court at Gelgel , which is south of Klungkung. The prime minister of the Majapahit Empire, Gajah Mada, appointed a Dewa Aging, which means ‘Great God’ to rule over the entire island. The Dewa Agung was for almost 200 years based in Gelgel. When the Majapahit Empire in Java, fell in 1515 , to the advancing Muslim, Mataram Empire , Bali received an influx of Javanese artisans and members of the royal court and during that era, Gelgel became a center for the arts.

The court was moved to Klungkung at the end of the 17th century . Bali developed separate kingdoms soon after and the strength off Klungkung was over. The final event that marked Klungkung’s history was a sad one. The Dutch started to occupy Bali in the early 20th century , and went about forcing each kingdom, to submit to their rule. The Dewa Agung of Klungkung refused, meaning the Dutch set themselves up, outside the royal palace to attack. The Dewa Agung and 200 of his courtiers marched down the street and committed a ‘ puputan ‘ (ritual group suicide) stabbing each other with ceremonial kris , rather than submit to the foreign power. Some of the royal family who were left was exiled in Lombok

Klungkung Palace

The Klungkung Palace is a historical building complex situated in Semarapura (Klungkung), the capital of the Klungkung regency ( kabupaten ) on Bali , Indonesia . The palace ( puri ) was erected at the end of the 17th century, but largely destroyed during the Dutch colonial conquest in 1908. Today the basic remains of the palace are the court of justice, the Kertha Gosa Pavilion , and the main gate that bears the date Saka 1622 (AD 1700). Within the old palace compound is also a floating pavilion, Bale Kambang, which was added in the 1940s. The descendants of the rajas that once ruled Klungkung today live in Puri Agung, a residence to the west of the old palace, which was built after 1929.

The Klungkung kingdom was considered to be the highest and most important of the nine kingdoms of Bali from the late 17th century to 1908. It was the heir of the old Gelgel kingdom, which had dominated the island since long but had broken up in the late 17th century. In 1686 (or, in another version, 1710), Dewa Agung Jambe I, a prince descending from the old Rajas of Gelgel , moved to Klungkung (also known as Semarapura ) and built a new palace or puri . Although he did not have the prerogatives of his Gelgel forbears, the new palace maintained a degree of prestige and precedence on the politically fragmented island.

The palace was built in square form, being roughly 150 meters on each side with the main gate to the north. It was divided in several blocks with various ritual and practical functions. The complex displayed a deep symbolism according to a fixed structural pattern.

The Kerta Gosa

The city was known at that time for its arts, painting, dance and music. At the end of the 18th century, the Kertha Gosa Pavilion , the hall of justice, was erected in the north-eastern corner of the palace compound. It typified the Klungkung style of architecture and painting. Kertha Gosa was considered the supreme court of Bali, and cases on the island which could not be resolved were transferred to this site. Three Brahmana priests presided over the court and were known for their harsh and inhumane sentences. The convicts (as well as visitors today) were able to view the ceiling which depicted different punishments while they were awaiting sentencing. The paintings of Puri Kertha Gosa are one of the outstanding examples of the Kamasan (or Wayang ) style.]

Early History

The descendants of the first king, Dewa Agung Jambe (r. 1686-c. 1722), ruled under varying fortunes for more than two centuries. They were always known by the title Dewa Agung . Dewa Agung Gede alias Surawirya ( rc 1722-1736) allied with the influential king of Mengwi and performed an expedition to Java together with him. After his death in 1736, internal fighting broke out between his two sons Dewa Agung Gede (Jr.) and Dewa Agung Made.

The former called in help from the Karangasem kingdom, but was defeated. The victor Dewa Agung Made was succeeded by a mentally ill son, Dewa Agung Sakti (r. before 1769-end of 18th century). His wife fled to Karangasem where her son Dewa Agung Putra I was brought up. In about the end of the 18th century his Karangasem helpers established him on the throne of Klungkung. Dewa Agung Putra I appear to have been a strong leader but fell in a minor war in Bangli in 1809. He left a son, Dewa Agung Putra II (r. 1814-1850) and a daughter and co-regent, Dewa Agung Istri Kanya

The Dutch Interference

Together with the other Balinese rajas, Dewa Agung Putra II signed a contract with the Dutch colonial authorities in 1843, but the varying interpretations of the contract soon caused friction. This was the background to the three Dutch military expeditions in 1846, 1848 and 1849. The last of these expeditions invaded Klungkung territory. The enterprising queen Dewa Agung Istri Kanya fought the Dutch to a standstill, and this was followed by a general reconciliation between the Balinese rajas and the Dutch authorities. In the following decades the kingdom was led by a grandson of Dewa Agung Sakti, Dewa Agung Putra III (r. 1851-1903 ). He was an activist leader who intervened in the affairs of the other south Balinese kingdoms, which were still only nominally attached to the Dutch East Indies . In 1885 he imprisoned the Raja of Gianyar , and in 1891 he was heavily responsible for the destruction of the Mengwi kingdom. After 1900 Dutch presence made itself increasingly felt in south Bali . In this situation Dewa Agung Putra III died and was succeeded by his son Dewa Agung Jambe II (r. 1903-1908 ). He took a defiant attitude against the encroaching colonialism.

The Fall of Klungkung

An incident, namely the alleged plundering of the stranded ship Sri Kumala in 1904, led to a renewed Dutch military foray in 1906. The colonial troops captured Badung after a suicidal attack on the invaders, a so-called puputan (“finishing”). Two years later, in a similar manner, an incident in nearby Gelgel triggered a punitive colonial expedition to Klungkung (see Dutch intervention in Bali (1908) ). The local Balinese elite chose to make a last stand against the Dutch . Dewa Agung Jambe II, the members of his dynasty and their retainers sallied forth from the palace and engaged in a puputan .

The fight, which took place on 18 April 1908, proceeded until the death of the last of the combatants, which included women and children. After the puputan, the surviving members of the royal family were exiled, and the palace was largely razed to the ground. In 1929 the family was allowed to return, and settled in the newly built Puri Agung. Today, the histories of Klungkung, and the puputan, are commemorated in a museum close to the remains of the palace. To the north of the palace a monument has been erected to the memory of the puputan incident.

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Place of Interest in Klungkung Regency :

 

Klungkung Town Map
(click Image to Enlarge)

 

 Klungkung Map

 

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